The effects of fiber volume fraction and matrix properties on the mechanical performance of 15-mm thick short cut PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) fiber-reinforced cementitious composites were investigated experimentally. Fiber volume ratios of mixtures varied between 0.5 and 2.0% by volume. Two different water to cement ratios (w/c) have been used (0.25 and 0.35) for matrix production. Test results have shown that both fiber content and matrix strength have significant effects on flexural behavior and impact resistance of these composites. The combined effect of w/c and fiber volume fraction on impact resistance was more drastic compared with specific fracture energies of composites determined under static loads. Especially under the effects of impact loads, higher values of w/c and increased PVA fiber content significantly improved the energy absorption capacity of these composites.