In-plane quasi-static compression deformation of Ti6Al4V double arrow-headed lattice structures fabricated by electron beam powder bed fusion process: Build orientation, scan speed and failure mechanism

Eren Z., Gokcekaya O., Nakano T., Mecitoğlu Z.

Journal of Materials Research and Technology, vol.27, pp.6192-6210, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 27
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jmrt.2023.11.027
  • Journal Name: Journal of Materials Research and Technology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Compendex, INSPEC, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Page Numbers: pp.6192-6210
  • Keywords: Compression deformation, Double arrow-headed lattice, Electron beam powder bed fusion process, Mechanical metamaterials, Microstructure
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


The 2D double arrow-headed (DAH) lattice structures, which are promising cellular structures for impact mitigation, remain relatively unexplored in terms of their compression response when manufactured using the powder bed fusion process with Ti6Al4V (Ti64) alloy. This study aims to investigate the effects of build orientation and beam scan speed of Electron Beam Powder Bed Fusion (PBF-EB) process on the energy absorption of 2D Ti64 DAH lattice structures. Additionally, potential microstructural variations due to adjusted process parameters can be linked to different levels of energy absorption. For the compressions, the lattice structures were manufactured at two build orientations (0° and 45°), using three different beam scan speeds: speed function (SF), low speed (LS), high speed (HS). In micro-characterizations, the unit cells of 0deg-LS exhibited the lowest micro-porosity level at 0.12 %. Based on KAM values, thin struts at unit cells had higher residual stresses than thick struts, contributing to the initiation of failure locations. The compressions revealed that the 0deg-LS group absorbed 21.6 % and 24 % more energy than 0deg-SF and 0deg-HS groups, respectively, at compressions of 33 %. 45° samples absorbed approximately 10 % more energy than 0° samples except HS groups. The lowest micro-porosity of 0deg-LS contributed to having the highest energy absorption among 0deg samples. As the residual stresses in KAM values did not differ strongly with varying beam speed, varied energy absorptions were not linked to them. An optimization of the numerical compressions helped obtain designs with higher energy absorption and less relative volume. This study provides valuable insights into Ti64 cellular applications constrained with 2D-type designs.