Impact of mixing on water quality in the Bosphorus – Implications on sustainable management of wastewater marine discharges

Sözen S., Orhon D., Kirca V., Sumer B.

Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol.189, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 189
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2023.114799
  • Journal Name: Marine Pollution Bulletin
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Artic & Antarctic Regions, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, EMBASE, Environment Index, Geobase, MEDLINE, Metadex, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: The Bosphorus, Mixing characteristics, Pollution of The Marmara Sea, Istanbul sewage, Marine discharges, Wastewater management
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


The study established the water quality modelling of the Bosphorus system, based on hydrodynamic data as well as the results of the water quality survey carried out in the last five years. The model revealed significant decrease in the magnitude of pollutant loads in the upper layer at the exit into The Marmara Sea providing numerical proof that no pollutant transport would take place from sewage discharges to the upper layer. A similar modelling approach was implemented at the Bosphorus/Marmara interface, a significant hotspot as it included two major deep marine outfalls. The results asserted that the entire sewage flow would enter the lower flow in The Bosphorus through the interface without an appreciable mixing with the upper flow. This way, the study provided a significant scientific support for the sustainable management of marine discharges in this area, since they have no physical interference with The Marmara Sea.