Phenacyl Ethyl Carbazolium as a Long Wavelength Photoinitiator for Free Radical Polymerization

Kara M., DADASHI-SILAB S., Yagci Y.

MACROMOLECULAR RAPID COMMUNICATIONS, vol.36, no.23, pp.2070-2075, 2015 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 36 Issue: 23
  • Publication Date: 2015
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/marc.201500446
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.2070-2075
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


A new phenacyl-type photoinitiator based on ethyl carbazole as a long wavelength photoinitiator is developed for free radical polymerization. Phenacyl ethyl carbazolium hexafluoroantimonate (PECH) photoinitiator is synthesized in a two-step, one-pot manner by quaternizing ethyl carbazole with phenacyl bromide and subsequent ion exchange reaction with potassium hexafluoroantimonate. Under irradiation, PECH tends to undergo homolytic bond cleavage bringing about initiating free radicals. However, as evidenced by cyclic voltammetry and real-time photobleaching studies, formation of initiating cationic species is highly unlikely as the photochemically formed charged carbazole units tend to couple.