Biocompatibility and Mechanical Stability of Nanopatterned Titanium Films on Stainless Steel Vascular Stents

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Yelkarası Ç., Recek N., Kazmanli K., Kovac J., Mozetic M., Ürgen M. K., ...More

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, vol.23, no.9, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 23 Issue: 9
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/ijms23094595
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: cardiovascular stents, nanopatterning, plasma treatment, endothelium cells, smooth muscle cells, cell viability, hemocompatibility, restenosis, NANOSTRUCTURED TITANIUM, SURFACE MODIFICATION, DIOXIDE NANOTUBES, PLATELET-ADHESION, ELUTING STENTS, CELL ADHESION, IN-VITRO, TI, OSSEOINTEGRATION, NANOTOPOGRAPHY
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Nanoporous ceramic coatings such as titania are promoted to produce drug-free cardiovascular stents with a low risk of in-stent restenosis (ISR) because of their selectivity towards vascular cell proliferation. The brittle coatings applied on stents are prone to cracking because they are subjected to plastic deformation during implantation. This study aims to overcome this problem by using a unique process without refraining from biocompatibility. Accordingly, a titanium film with 1 mu m thickness was deposited on 316 LVM stainless-steel sheets using magnetron sputtering. Then, the samples were anodized to produce nanoporous oxide. The nanoporous oxide was removed by ultrasonication, leaving an approximately 500 nm metallic titanium layer with a nanopatterned surface. XPS studies revealed the presence of a 5 nm-thick TiO2 surface layer with a trace amount of fluorinated titanium on nanopatterned surfaces. Oxygen plasma treatment of the nanopatterned surface produced an additional 5 nm-thick fluoride-free oxide layer. The samples did not exhibit any cracking or spallation during plastic deformation. Cell viability studies showed that nanopatterned surfaces stimulate endothelial cell proliferation while reducing the proliferation of smooth muscle cells. Plasma treatment further accelerated the proliferation of endothelial cells. Activation of blood platelets did not occur on oxygen plasma-treated, fluoride-free nanopatterned surfaces. The presented surface treatment method can also be applied to other stent materials such as CoCr, nitinol, and orthopedic implants.