The merit of the North Sea-Caspian pattern in explaining climate variability in the Euro-Mediterranean region

Çağlar F., Yetemen Ö., Chun K. P., Şen Ö. L.

International Journal of Climatology, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/joc.8108
  • Journal Name: International Journal of Climatology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, IBZ Online, PASCAL, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Artic & Antarctic Regions, CAB Abstracts, Compendex, Environment Index, Geobase, Greenfile, INSPEC, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: AO, EAWR, Euro-Mediterranean, hydro-climatology, Mediterranean trough, NAO, NCP, teleconnections
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Teleconnection patterns are one of the key features to understanding high-frequency natural climate variability. The North Sea-Caspian Pattern (NCP) was identified as a middle tropospheric dipole and its hydroclimatological implications have been substantially restricted to the Eastern Mediterranean region. Thus, the hydroclimatological influences of the NCP in the Euro-Mediterranean region were investigated via a comparative approach with dominant tropospheric teleconnections in the Eurasian region and synoptic features such as ridge-trough positioning and strength. By using high-resolution ERA5 reanalysis data, cross-correlations between indexes, anticorrelations at 500 hPa and composite anomaly maps for seasonally representative months were produced to understand the working mechanism of the NCP. Comparisons included the East Atlantic/Western Russian (EAWR) pattern, a rotated principal component analysis (RPCA) variant of NCP which utilizes pole-based representation. Analysis revealed that the NCP was correlated well with the Mediterranean trough displacement and with the strength of the East Asian trough. Climate anomalies indicated by the NCP were greater and more spatially consistent compared to other teleconnections. The NCP also showed higher contrasts of temperature and precipitation than the EAWR based on the composite anomaly maps. In conclusion, the NCP explained climate variability in all seasons linking remote centres of action within Eurasia's east and west extremes.