Local-scale phase velocity estimation using ambient seismic noise: comparison between passive seismic interferometry and conventional frequency-wavenumber methods


Karaaslan A., Kocaoglu A., Ozalaybey S.

GEOPHYSICAL JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL, vol.225, no.3, pp.2075-2096, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 225 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1093/gji/ggab080
  • Title of Journal : GEOPHYSICAL JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL
  • Page Numbers: pp.2075-2096
  • Keywords: Seismic interferometry, Seismic noise, Surface waves and free oscillations, SURFACE-WAVE, MULTICHANNEL ANALYSIS, CROSS-CORRELATION, SE TIBET, ARRAY MEASUREMENTS, 2-STATION ANALYSIS, UPPERMOST MANTLE, DATA SELECTION, UNITED-STATES, TRAFFIC NOISE

Abstract

We present a new processing scheme that uses passive seismic interferometry (PSI) followed by multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW), which we call the 2-D PSI-MASW method, to obtain Rayleigh wave phase velocity dispersion (PVD) information. In this scheme, we first use the principles of PSI to form multidirectional cross-correlations (CCs) then project the CCs onto a 1-D virtual array and apply the phase-shift transform as in MASW processing. We compare PVD information obtained by this method with those of the conventional beam-power based frequency-wavenumber decomposition (CVFK) method using ambient seismic noise (ASN) data collected by local-scale 2-D arrays deployed at three selected sites in Bursa, Turkey. By analysing the ASN data from these sites, we show that similar multimodal PVD curves can be obtained with the two methods over a broad frequency range (similar to 2-23 Hz) within the wavenumber resolution and aliasing limits. However, in one of our sites where the 2-D array configuration has a considerable antisymmetry, we show that the 1-D virtual array used in the 2-D PSI-MASW method has a better array response function in terms of wavenumber resolution and suppression of side-lobes leading to superior mode resolution and separation than that of the CVFK method, which shows strong directional variations. Furthermore, unlike the CVFK method, the 2-D PSI-MASW method takes advantage of temporal stacking of CCs ensuring weak but coherent Rayleigh wave signals present in the ASN wavefield to be strengthened and has the potential for better extraction of PVD information. We conclude that by using a 2-D array with spatial coverage providing a wide range of directions and distances, reliable PVD information can be obtained even if the ASN sources are not concentrated in the stationary phase zones. Thus, we suggest that the 2-D PSI-MASW method is highly advantageous for the extraction of reliable PVD information owing to the multidirectional CCs provided by the 2-D array configurations. We also report that using only a single receiver line in the interferometric approach results in biased and/or incomplete PVD information due to the non-isotropic ASN source distribution at all three sites we analysed. In conclusion, our results clearly indicate that the 2-D PSI-MASW method can be used as complementary or alternative to the CVFK method to extract multimodal Rayleigh wave PVD information in local-scale seismological studies.