Variational principles for piezoelectric, thermopiezoelectric, and hygrothermopiezoelectric continua revisited

Altay G., Dokmeci M. C.

MECHANICS OF ADVANCED MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, vol.14, no.7, pp.549-562, 2007 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier


In this paper some variational principles are revisited for the fundamental equations of a regular region of piezoelectric, thermopiezoelectric, and hygrothermopiezoelectric (but non-stochastic, non-local, and non-relativistic) materials in the elastic range. Certain oversights, and especially, those involving the so-called Hu-Washizu variational principle of piezoelectricity that was first formulated in a paper ("Variational Principles in Piezoelectricity," Lettere Al Nuovo Cimento, vol. 7, 449-454, 1973) are clarified within the "ISI-Web of Science" publications in the open literature. Similar variational principles of piezoelectricity are cited.