PROSTHESIS, vol.4, no.3, pp.424-443, 2022 (ESCI)
One of the most pressing concerns to global public health is the emergence of drug-resistant pathogenic microorganisms due to increased unconscious antibiotic usage. With the rising antibiotic resistance, existing antimicrobial agents lose their effectiveness over time. This indicates that newer and more effective antimicrobial agents and methods should be investigated. Many studies have shown that micro-/nanorobots exhibit promise in the treatment of microbial infections with their great properties, such as the intrinsic antimicrobial activities owing to their oxidative stress induction and metal ion release capabilities, and effective and autonomous delivery of antibiotics to the target area. In addition, they have multiple simultaneous mechanisms of action against microbes, which makes them remarkable in antimicrobial activity. This review focuses on the antimicrobial micro-/nanorobots and their strategies to impede biofilm formation, following a brief introduction of the latest advancements in micro-/nanorobots, and their implementations against various bacteria, and other microorganisms.