Multifaceted Regional Educational Inequality: Evidence from Türkiye

Gültekin D., Yıldız Özbek S.

Compare, 2023 (SSCI) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/03057925.2023.2292530
  • Journal Name: Compare
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Periodicals Index Online, EBSCO Education Source, Education Abstracts, Educational research abstracts (ERA), ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), Index Islamicus, Linguistics & Language Behavior Abstracts, PAIS International, Public Affairs Index
  • Keywords: Comparative education, education gini index, income inequality, regional inequality, Theil index
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Educational equality is a priority in sustaining economic and human development. This study examines regional educational inequality in Türkiye by considering educational attainment, income distribution, and education spending. Average years of schooling improved in all regions between 2008 and 2020. The Education Gini and Theil indexes indicate diminishing intra-regional inequality while significant inter-regional differences persist. The income Gini coefficient was unexpectedly found to be negatively correlated with equality in educational attainment for the country and three regions. The results also show the disproportionate dominance of the top income group in the distribution of education spending and the share of education in consumption expenditures. The growing gap in educational expenditures between the top and last quintiles accompanies rising educational attainment. The recent achievement in educational attainment needs to be followed by new programs that address social and spatial educational inequality in Türkiye.