The Lavandula genus, belonging to the Lamiaceae, includes 39 species, with nearly 400 registered cultivars. Lavandula are worldwide plants that occur over the Mediterranean, Europe, North Africa, southwest Asia to southeast India. Lavandula plants have been used since ancient time to flavor and preserved food, to treat diseases including wound healing, sedative, antispasmodic, microbial and viral infections. Numerous researches have described the chemical composition and the primary components of lavender oils are the monoterpenoids (linalool, linalyl acetate, 1,8-cineole, (beta-ocimene, terpinen-4-ol, and camphor), sesquiterpenoids (beta-caryophyllene and nerolidol) and other terpenoid compounds (e.g., perillyl alcohol). The high concentrations of linalyl acetate make them attractive in perfumery, flavoring, cosmetics and soap industries. Currently, data on the antimicrobial activity of lavender plants have been scientifically confirmed. Indeed, lavender essential oils possess wide spectra of biological activities such as antispasmodic, carminative, analgesic, sedative, hypotensive, antiseptic, antimicrobial, antifungal, antidiuretic and general tonic action. In addition, clinical studies support their uses as treatment of health conditions. However, further clinical studies are necessary to define the magnitude of the efficacy, mechanisms of action, optimal doses, long-term safety, and, potential side effects of lavender plants.