Succeeding a cultural and people oriented transformation, Lean Producers adopts the philosophy of doing more with less by eliminating non-value-added activities from production processes to maintain effectiveness, flexibility, and profitability. With the context of Industry 4.0, new solutions are available for combining automation technology with Lean Production. Moreover, when effective resource (finance, labour, material, machine/equipment) usage is concerned, it is obvious that Industry 4.0 should be applied on lean processes. In this context, this chapter attempts to emphasize the interaction between Lean Production and Industry 4.0 and proposes a methodology which provides guidance for Industry 4.0 under lean production environment. Moreover, Industry 4.0 technologies and automation oriented Lean Production applications are also included.