Carbazole, N-ethylcarbazole and N-vinylcarbazole were polymerised in the presence of pyrrole both chemically by eerie ammonium nitrate (CAN), and electrochemically. The resulting products (homopolymers, copolymers and composites) were characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR) and UV-Visible spectroscopy, 4-point probe conductivity measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), elemental analysis and X-ray measurements. The specific electrical conductivity of the chemically synthesised homopolymers and composites can be increased in comparison to that of the electrochemical ones, depending on the concentration and addition rate of CAN. The conductivities of copolymers obtained by using CAN are in the range of 10(-7)-10(-3) S cm(-1). (C) 1999 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.