This study aimed to determine how the addition of gellan, guar, locust bean, and xanthan gums affected the polyphenol profile of Aronia melanocarpa puree and the human gut microbiota after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and large intestine fermentation. The different gums distinctively affected the content and bioaccessibility of phenolics in Aronia puree, as outlined by untargeted metabolomics. The addition of locust bean gum increased the levels of low-molecular-weight phenolics and phenolic acids after digestion. Gellan and guar gums enhanced phenolic acids' bioaccessibility after fermentation. Interactions between digestion products and fecal bacteria altered the composition of the microbiota, with the greatest impact of xanthan. Locust bean gum promoted the accumulation of different taxa with health-promoting properties. Our findings shed light on the added-value properties of commercial gums as food additives, promoting a distinctive increase of polyphenol bioaccessibility and shifting the gut microbiota distribution, depending on their composition and structural features.