This chapter aims at developing a taxonomic framework to classify the studies on the flexible job shop scheduling problem (FJSP). The FJSP is a generalization of the classical job shop scheduling problem (JSP), which is one of the oldest NP-hard problems. Although various solution methodologies have been developed to obtain good solutions in reasonable time for FSJPs with different objective functions and constraints, no study which systematically reviews the FJSP literature has been encountered. In the proposed taxonomy, the type of study, type of problem, objective, methodology, data characteristics, and benchmarking are the main categories. In order to verify the proposed taxonomy, a variety of papers from the literature are classified. Using this classification, several inferences are drawn and gaps in the FJSP literature are specified. With the proposed taxonomy, the aim is to develop a framework for a broad view of the FJSP literature and construct a basis for future studies.