Backwashing of granular media filters and membranes for water treatment: a review

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Turan M.

Aqua Water Infrastructure, Ecosystems and Society, vol.72, no.3, pp.274-298, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 72 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.2166/aqua.2023.207
  • Journal Name: Aqua Water Infrastructure, Ecosystems and Society
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.274-298
  • Keywords: backwashing, biological activated carbon (BAC) filter, rapid sand filter (RSF), ultrafiltration, used backwash water
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Filter backwashing is a supplemental part of a drinking water treatment (DWT) facility to wash the filter bed at regular intervals using water or air scour/water by fluidizing the filter bed. Deposited material induces clogging the filter pores and enhances head loss in the bed. Biofiltration has been extensively utilized to decrease organic matter and manage the occurrence of disinfection by-products within drinking water sources. Biological rapid sand filters are frequently utilized to eliminate ammonium from groundwater provinces with the purpose of meeting drinking water requirements. Biological activated carbon (BAC) filters need to be backwashed to wash and enhance the treatment capability by detaching both restrained materials and residual biomass. The reclamation of activated carbon-used backwash water (UBW) was managed by exercising an ultrafiltration (UF) procedure.