Two-stage training algorithm for A robot soccer

Kim T., Vecchietti L. F., Choi K., Sarıel Uzer S., Har D.

PEERJ COMPUTER SCIENCE, vol.7, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 7
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.7717/peerj-cs.718
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Compendex, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: Multi-agent reinforcement learning, Heterogeneous agents, Centralized training, Deep learning, Robotics, GO, LEVEL, GAME
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


In multi-agent reinforcement learning, the cooperative learning behavior of agents is very important. In the field of heterogeneous multi-agent reinforcement learning, cooperative behavior among different types of agents in a group is pursued. Learning a joint-action set during centralized training is an attractive way to obtain such cooperative behavior; however, this method brings limited learning performance with heterogeneous agents. To improve the learning performance of heterogeneous agents during centralized training, two-stage heterogeneous centralized training which allows the training of multiple roles of heterogeneous agents is proposed. During training, two training processes are conducted in a series. One of the two stages is to attempt training each agent according to its role, aiming at the maximization of individual role rewards. The other is for training the agents as a whole to make them learn cooperative behaviors while attempting to maximize shared collective rewards, e.g., team rewards. Because these two training processes are conducted in a series in every time step, agents can learn how to maximize role rewards and team rewards simultaneously. The proposed method is applied to 5 versus 5 AI robot soccer for validation. The experiments are performed in a robot soccer environment using Webots robot simulation software. Simulation results show that the proposed method can train the robots of the robot soccer team effectively, achieving higher role rewards and higher team rewards as compared to other three approaches that can be used to solve problems of training cooperative multi-agent. Quantitatively, a team trained by the proposed method improves the score concede rate by 5% to 30% when compared to teams trained with the other approaches in matches against evaluation teams.