Surface subsidence induced by twin subway tunnelling in soft ground conditions in Istanbul

Mahmutoglu Y.

BULLETIN OF ENGINEERING GEOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT, vol.70, no.1, pp.115-131, 2011 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier


Unlike the symmetrical surface settlement trough of a single tunnel which can be described using the Gaussian function, surface settlement over twin tunnels can be symmetric with respect to the mid-point between two tunnels or asymmetric. The paper reports the settlement troughs which developed when earth pressure balance (EPB) machines were used to excavate twin tunnels at shallow depth in the soft ground conditions beneath a developed part of Istanbul. An attempt is made to evaluate the effects of different factors on the surface subsidence. Detailed monitoring was undertaken when one tunnel was advanced ahead of the other and when only one tunnel was being driven. It was found that the shapes of the subsidence troughs over the two tunnels were different and varied with the excavation of the second/subsequent tunnel. It is concluded that changes in the subsidence trough are related to disturbance in the geo-material when an excavation is advanced ahead, as well as the nature and thickness of the overburden.