Interpretation of similar to 1750 km of multi-channel seismic reflection profiles shows that the region of Anaximander Mountains (sensu lato) experienced a protracted Miocene contractional tectonic phase characterised by a nearly E-W trending and S-verging fold-thrust belt. This tectonic phase culminated during the latest Miocene and was replaced in the early-mid Pliocene by a tectonic regime dominated by transpression and rotation. We postulate that during the Pliocene-Quaternary the Anaximander Mountain (sensu stricto) and the Anaximenes Mountain developed as the result of reactivation and uplift and rotation of a linked, thick-skinned pre-Messinian imbricate thrust fan. In both regions, the development of back thrusts accentuated the morphology of these submarine mountains. At this time, the Anaximenes Mountain experienced a progressive counterclockwise rotation, while the Anaxagoras Mountain and the Florence Rise experienced a clockwise rotation creating the present present-day arrowhead-shaped morphology of the Anaximander Mountains (sensu lato). The Sirri Erinc Plateau represents a former Miocene fold-thrust belt that is transected during the Pliocene-Quaternary by a major transpressional fault system, which created a series of closely-spaced high-angle faults that cut the seafloor, creating a corrugated topography. A major transfer fault is developed between the Anaximander Mountain (sensu stricto) and the Sirri Erinc Plateau which displays similar to 2 km of contractional stratigraphic separation and as much as 40 km of sinistral strike-slip. The Finike Basin evolved during the Pliocene-Quaternary as the result of accelerated subsidence, caused by the lithospheric loading of the western Tauride Mountains. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.