This study evaluates rural self-employment in the EU countries, while comparing them with rural self-employment in Turkey. The study focuses on self-employment trends in the agricultural sector on the basis of changing motivations and participations of males and females. The data used for comparison and evaluation are based on Eurostat and Turkstat data. The results show that agricultural employment and self-employment exhibit a slight decrease over time and that the impact of this decrease in male and female employment differs among countries. The results also show that the motivation of Turkish women towards self-employment is higher than that of European women and of Turkish men.