Process capability analysis (PCA) is a tool for measuring a process's ability to meet specification limits (SLs), which the customers define. Process capability indices (PCIs) are used for establishing a relationship between SLs and the considered process's ability to meet these limits as an index. PCA compares the output of a process with the SLs through these capability indices. If the customers' needs contain vague or imprecise terms, the classical methods are inadequate to solve the problem. In such cases, the information can be processed by the fuzzy set theory. Recently, ordinary fuzzy sets have been extended to several new types of fuzzy sets such as intuitionistic fuzzy sets, Pythagorean fuzzy sets, picture fuzzy sets, and spherical fuzzy sets. In this paper, a new extension of intuitionistic fuzzy sets, which is called penthagorean fuzzy sets, is proposed, and penthagorean fuzzy PCIs are developed. The design of production processes for COVID-19 has gained tremendous importance today. Surgical mask production and design have been chosen as the application area of the penthagorean fuzzy PCIs developed in this paper. PCA of the two machines used in surgical mask production has been handled under the penthagorean fuzzy environment.