Located in central Anatolia, Cappadocia presents a spectacular landscape created by characteristic geology and architectural patterns. Throughout the region an indigenous settlement pattern has been generated by using rock carving and masonry techniques. This article aims to identify and characterize the building system specific to this region and to analyze it through a systematic study. For this analysis more than twenty representative examples of traditional houses from Urgup and the nearby villages of Mustafapasa and Ibrahimpasa have been studied in detail. System sections and details of the buildings were drawn, and interviews were conducted with local masons who are still working in the field. Therefore, every building part is evaluated in terms of material, technique, and relationship to each other.