Extending EPANET hydraulic solver capacity with rigid water column global gradient algorithm

Koşucu M. M., Albay E., Demirel M. C.

JOURNAL OF HYDRO-ENVIRONMENT RESEARCH, vol.42, pp.31-43, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 42
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jher.2022.04.002
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), CAB Abstracts, Compendex, Environment Index, Geobase, Greenfile, INSPEC, Pollution Abstracts, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.31-43
  • Keywords: EPANET, Hydraulic Modeling, Water Distribution Networks, Rigid Water Column, CTCM, TRANSIENT FLOW, UNSTEADY-FLOW, VALVE CLOSURE, CONVERGENCE, SIMULATION
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


EPANET is one of the most commonly used open-source programs in hydraulic modelling water distribution networks (WDNs), based on steady-state and extended period simulation approaches. These approaches effectively estimate flow capacity and average pressures in networks; however, EPANET is not yet fully effective in modelling incompressible unsteady flows in WDNs. In this study, the hydraulic solver capacity of EPANET 3 is extended with the Rigid Water Column Global Gradient Algorithm (RWC-GGA) to model incompressible unsteady flow hydraulics in WDNs. Moreover, we incorporated dynamically more accurate valve expressions than the existing ones in the default EPANET code and introduced a new global convergence algorithm, Convergence Tracking Control Method (CTCM), in the solver code. The RWC-GGA, CTCM, and valve expressions are tested and validated in three different WDNs varying from simple to sophisticated set-ups. The results show that incompressible unsteady flows can be modelled with RWC-CGA and dynamic valve representations. Finally, the convergence problem due to the valve motion and the pressure-dependent algorithm (PDA) is solved by the implemented global convergence algorithm, i.e. CTCM.