Methods to improve efficiency of four stroke, spark ignition engines at part load

Kutlar O. A., Arslan H., CALIK A. T.

ENERGY CONVERSION AND MANAGEMENT, vol.46, no.20, pp.3202-3220, 2005 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 46 Issue: 20
  • Publication Date: 2005
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.enconman.2005.03.008
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.3202-3220
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


The four stroke, spark: ignition (SI) engine pressure volume diagram (p I') contains two main parts. They are the compression-combustion-expansion (high pressure loop) and the exhaust-intake (low pressure or gas exchange loop) parts. The main reason for efficiency decrease at part load conditions for these types of engines is the flow restriction at the cross sectional area of the intake system by partially closing the throttle valve, which leads to increased pumping losses and to increased low pressure loop area on the p-V diagram. Meanwhile, the poorer combustion quality, i.e. lower combustion speed and cycle to cycle variations, additionally influence these pressure loop areas. In this study, methods for increasing efficiency at part load conditions and their potential for practical use are investigated. The study also includes a review of the vast literature on the solution of this problem. This investigation shows that the potential for increasing the efficiency of SI engines at part load conditions is not yet exhausted, Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages. Among these, the most promising methods to decrease the fuel consumption at part load conditions are stratified charge and variable displacement engines. When used in combination, the other listed methods are more effective than their usage alone. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.