Development of adaptive human-computer interaction games to evaluate attention

Creative Commons License

Kandemir H., Köse H.

ROBOTICA, vol.40, no.1, pp.56-76, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 40 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1017/s0263574721000370
  • Journal Name: ROBOTICA
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, Computer & Applied Sciences, INSPEC, Metadex, DIALNET, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.56-76
  • Keywords: Brain-computer interface, Learning, Cognitive skills development, HCI games, Kinect, Myo sensor, LEARNING MATHEMATICS, VIDEO GAMES, MOTIVATION, CHILDREN, ACHIEVEMENT, EXERGAMES, EDUCATION, IMPACT
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


In this paper, several physical activity-based human-computer interaction (HCI) games which are developed and implemented for the improvement of attention, emotion, and sensory-motor coordination will be presented. The interface and the difficulty levels of these games are specially designed for the use of people with different age groups and disabilities. The games involve physical activities for the fulfillment of some basic HCI tasks which require hand and arm motion for control, such as fruit picking and air hockey, with adaptive difficulty levels based on varying parameters of the games and human performance. In the fruit picking game, several fruit images are moving from top to the bottom of the screen. Objective is to collect apples while avoiding the pears. The player's hand will control the basket that collects the fruits. In the air hockey game, the player will try to score goals against computer-controlled opponent. The player's hand will control the paddle to hit the puck to score or to defend his/her goal area. The player's hand is recognized by Kinect RGB-D sensors in both games. Aim of the adaptive difficulty-based system is keeping the players engaged in the games. The games are tested with a group of deaf children (3.5-5 years) as a part of an ongoing project,(1) to decrease the stress of the children and increase their positive emotions, attention, and sensory-motor coordination before the audiology tests. The game performances and the evaluation of the therapists show that the games have a positive impact on the children. The games are also tested with a group of adults as a control group, where a mobile EEG device is employed to detect the attention levels. For this purpose, the adults also attended a third game featuring a maze and controlled with Myo sensors.