Xenobiotic compounds are widely used in several industries; hence they frequently appear in industrial wastewaters. It is a well-known fact that even the discharge of conventionally treated wastewater may have adverse effects on the receiving water environment. Turkey, a developing EU applicant country, has many industrial sectors producing large amounts of xenobiotic-containing wastewaters. The problem is only enlarged by the lack of monitoring of these substances due to the deficiencies associated with their analysis and detection. Thus, studies in Turkey are based on the use of some collective parameters as a substitute for the xenobiotic itself. Biological, physicochemical, and integrated treatment technologies have been investigated for the removal and/or minimization of the possible adverse effects of xenobiotics in industrial wastewaters. In this respect, this paper provides an overview of the studies conducted on xenobiotic-containing wastewaters from specific industries in Turkey. Although the studies add invaluable information to the scientific background on the subject, new research on the exact biochemical mechanisms of xenobiotic biodegradation will further extend our understanding for improving treatment. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.