Geomechanical, durability-hygrothermal and thermal shock properties of Kocaeli Kandira stone used as building stone in historical structures

KARAKAŞ A., Morali G., CORUK Ö., Bozkurtoğlu E.

ENVIRONMENTAL EARTH SCIENCES, vol.80, no.4, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 80 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s12665-021-09426-8
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, IBZ Online, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Compendex, Computer & Applied Sciences, Environment Index, Geobase, INSPEC, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


This study investigated the mineralogical, chemical, physical, mechanical, durability-hygrothermal, thermal shock properties, and economic aspects of the Kandira stone, one of the well-known natural building stones, commonly used in many historical structures in the Marmara and Thrace regions. Especially, it has been preferred to Malta stone in historical structures in Istanbul due to economic reasons at the beginning of the 1900s. A similar appearance and lithology with Malta stone and closeness of the Kandira stone to Istanbul made it attractive to be used as natural building stone in historical monuments and new structures. The mean physico-mechanical properties of Kandira stone yielded 2.24 g/cm(3) apparent density, 2.72 specific gravity, 19.21% total porosity, 5.8% water absorption by weight, 48 MPa compressive strength, 11.4 MPa bending strength. In terms of durability properties, Kandira stone has high resistance to aging by CaCl salt mist and no or low resistance to SO2 aging in a humid environment. Also, the freeze-thaw test of Kandira stone yielded an exceptionally low mass loss (0.11%) indicating that the stone is resistant to freeze-thaw effect. Thermal shock tests indicated that Kandira stone is mainly resistant to thermal shock cycles. Economically, the calculated probable reserve of Kandira stone resulted in 40.8 x 10(6) tons of material and the potential economic value based on the probable reserve is calculated around 54.672 x 10(9) TL (approximately euro7.2B). In conclusion, this study defined the petrographic, geomechanical, durability-hygrothermal and thermal shock properties essential for the use of Kandira stone as building stone and restoration material.