The paper provides experimental justification for a scientific approach to optimizing wastewater recovery and reuse potential in the textile industry. A wool and blends finishing mill, with a high wastewater generation rate, was selected as a case study. A detailed survey was carried out on a selected process to generate a comprehensive pollution profile, which identified a reusable fraction of more than 50%. Chemical settling and oxidation tests were performed to improve the quality of this fraction. COD fractionation and respirometric assessment of biological treatability were evaluated for the wastewater remaining after segregation of the recovered portion, with specific emphasis on the technological implications for appropriate biological treatment.