Anacardium plants are native to the American tropical regions, and Anacardium occidentale L. (cashew tree) is the most recognized species of the genus. These species contain rich secondary metabolites in their leaf and shoot powder, fruits and other parts that have shown diverse applications. This review describes the habitat and cultivation of Anacardium species, phytochemical and nutritional composition, and their industrial food applications. Besides, we also discuss the secondary metabolites present in Anacardium plants which display great antioxidant and antimicrobial effects. These make the use of Anacardium species in the food industry an interesting approach to the development of green foods.