Structural Equation Model of Occupant Satisfaction for Evaluating the Performance of Office Buildings

Tekçe I., Ergen Pehlevan E., Artan D.

ARABIAN JOURNAL FOR SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING, vol.45, pp.8759-8784, 2020 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 45
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s13369-020-04804-z
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Aerospace Database, Communication Abstracts, Metadex, Pollution Abstracts, zbMATH, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.8759-8784
  • Keywords: Building performance evaluation, Occupant satisfaction, Office buildings, Post-occupancy evaluation (POE), Structural equation modeling (SEM), INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL-QUALITY, OPEN-PLAN OFFICES, POSTOCCUPANCY EVALUATION, THERMAL COMFORT, AIR-QUALITY, MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT, GREEN BUILDINGS, PRODUCTIVITY, DESIGN, KNOWLEDGE
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Measuring occupant satisfaction and collecting feedback is critical for evaluating building performance, shaping comfort, effective decision-making in building improvements, and consequently enhancing the well-being of occupants. Numerous post-occupancy evaluation tools have been developed for examining occupant satisfaction in different building types; however, they are criticized in the recent studies for failing to (1) empirically examine the interrelated influence of a broad range of factors on occupant satisfaction, (2) include expert opinion from the industry in the indicator determination process, (3) collect contextual information along with the feedback in real-time and in a continuous manner and (4) provide effective mechanisms to integrate occupant feedback in the building models to enable visualization and performing queries on feedback items. The purpose of this paper is to develop an occupant satisfaction measurement model for monitoring the perceived performance of office buildings. A hierarchical structural model was developed based on the literature review, analysis of occupant feedback records in office buildings, and focus group meetings with facility managers to determine the constructs of occupant satisfaction. This model was empirically validated via structural equation modeling (SEM) using the survey data collected from 300 office occupants. The proposed SEM model, which adopts a total of 27 indicators across six dimensions, is found to be highly satisfactory indicating a strong association between dimensions and occupant satisfaction. The findings emphasize that building design and facility service dimensions need to be considered along with physical comfort dimensions when determining occupant satisfaction. The main contribution of the paper is the empirically validated, holistic, SEM model of occupant satisfaction, which is developed based on current practice and industry practitioners' feedback and integrates building design and facility services with physical comfort dimensions. In the following phase of the research, the developed occupant satisfaction measurement model was used as the basis for designing a prototype, which enables decision-makers to collect occupant feedback continuously and integrate it with building information modeling to visualize and perform queries on feedback items. Eventually, this measurement model is expected to contribute to making more effective decisions based on the actual performance of the facility in the post-occupancy phase and enhance building performance as well as occupant well-being and productivity.