Techno-Economic Comparative Analysis of Grid-connected and Islanded Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems in 7 Climate Regions, Turkey

Ayan O., Türkay B.

IEEE Access, vol.11, pp.48797-48825, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 11
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1109/access.2023.3276776
  • Journal Name: IEEE Access
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Compendex, INSPEC, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Page Numbers: pp.48797-48825
  • Keywords: Cost of energy, greenhouse gas, HOMER ® software, hybrid renewable energy system (HRES), net present cost, techno-economic optimization
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


The aim of this study is to evaluate the economic, technical, and environmental performances of grid-tied and stand-alone hybrid renewable energy systems (HRESs) in 21 provinces in seven regions of Turkey, considering different regional solar radiation and wind speed diversity. HRES were designed and modeled using the Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources software (HOMER PRO) to meet the daily load of 13.26 kWh/day of a household. The analysis results for each province were compared considering the cost of energy, net present cost (NPC), greenhouse gas emissions, renewable fraction (RF), and optimum system configuration. The findings demonstrated that the optimal system configurations are Grid/PV/WT and PV/WT/DG/BESS for grid-tied and stand-alone HRES, respectively. The value of NPC ranges from $2,540.00 to $8,951.00 for grid-tied HRES, while it varies from $23,372.00 to $40,858.00 for stand-alone HRES. The provinces of Çanakkale in the Marmara Region and Artvin in the Black Sea Coast Region have the lowest and highest NPC values, respectively, for all systems. The PV capital cost, WT capital cost, BESS capital cost, solar radiation, and wind speed are considered as sensitivity input parameters that might affect the economic output of the HRES in this study. According to the sensitivity analysis, the NPC value as an economic indicator input decreased for both on-grid and off-grid HRES as the wind speed and solar radiation increased. It was also found that when the capital cost of PV panels and WT were changed, the NPC of the stand-alone HRES was in the range of $21,402.27-$29,978.89 for the province of Çanakkale, while it was in the range of $37,518.11-$51,939.00 for the province of Artvin. Moreover, when solar radiation and wind speed were increased, the results showed that NPC and CO2 emissions decreased by 9.30% and 9.23%, respectively, for Çanakkale, and by 25.58% and 66.95%, respectively, for Artvin. Finally, the results indicated that the optimal system configuration changes depending on the PV and WT capital cost variations for the grid-tied HRES. This research can be useful for planning grid-tied and stand-alone HRES from different aspects in Turkey, as well as other countries around the world. It contributes to the literature by comparing grid-tied and stand-alone HRES to determine the optimum system configuration and to find the best optimization results in seven regions of Turkey under different climate conditions. In addition, most of the studies related to HRES for residential areas in the literature are reviewed in this research, which intends to serve as a guide for engineers and researchers.