Investigation of the possibilities of using biomicritic limestone in Türkiye as a raw material in the production of natural hydraulic binders Türkiye biyomikritik kireçtaşının doğal hidrolik bağlayıcı üretiminde ham madde olarak kullanım olanaklarının araştırılması

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Özer N., Acun Özgünler S., Özdamar Ş.

Journal of the Faculty of Engineering and Architecture of Gazi University, vol.39, no.1, pp.577-591, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 39 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.17341/gazimmfd.1179147
  • Journal Name: Journal of the Faculty of Engineering and Architecture of Gazi University
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Art Source, Compendex, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.577-591
  • Keywords: biomicritic limestone, calcination, Hydraulic binder, natural cement, natural hydraulic lime
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Throughout history, various natural and artificial binders have been used in our buildings. Lime was the most frequently used binder in buildings until the invention of ordinary Portland Cement. However, lime has no hydraulic character and is not resistant to water. Therefore, lime mortars were improved by adding various artificial and natural pozzolans after 300 B.C. The production of hydraulic binders started in the 18th century. The difference between hydraulic binders described as “natural” is using a clayey limestone, or marl, with naturally appropriate chemical content as a raw material. This study aims to produce natural hydraulic binders by calcining biomicritic limestone extracted in Mersin, Türkiye. After the raw material properties were determined, biomicritic limestone calcined at 750℃, 850℃, 950℃ and 1050℃. Eminently hydraulic lime (NHL 5) was compared with them as a commercial product. The binder calcined at 850 C (M850) has similar chemical, physical, and mechanical properties to NLH 5. After the 91st day, the strength of M750/SS and M750/Y14.5 mortars decreased. M950/SS, M950/Y14,5, M1050/SS, and M1050/Y14,5 fresh mortars released heat during the hydration process. Natural hydraulic binder was produced at 850℃ (M850) using biomicritic limestone in Türkiye.