High levels of heavy metal accumulation in dental calculus of smokers: a pilot inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry study

YAPRAK E., Yolcubal İ., SİNANOĞLU E. A., Doğrul-Demiray A., GÜZELDEMİR AKÇAKANAT E., Marakoğlu İ.

Journal of Periodontal Research, vol.52, no.1, pp.83-88, 2017 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 52 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2017
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/jre.12371
  • Journal Name: Journal of Periodontal Research
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.83-88
  • Keywords: dental calculus, heavy metal accumulation, ICP-MS, smoking
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: No


Background and Objective: Various trace elements, including toxic heavy metals, may exist in dental calculus. However, the effect of environmental factors on heavy metal composition of dental calculus is unknown. Smoking is a major environmental source for chronic toxic heavy metal exposition. The aim of this study is to compare toxic heavy metal accumulation levels in supragingival dental calculus of smokers and non-smokers. Material and Methods: A total of 29 supragingival dental calculus samples were obtained from non-smoker (n = 14) and smoker (n = 15) individuals. Subjects with a probability of occupational exposure were excluded from the study. Samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in terms of 26 metals and metalloids, including toxic heavy metals. Results: Toxic heavy metals, arsenic (p < 0.05), cadmium (p < 0.05), lead (p < 0.01), manganese (p < 0.01) and vanadium (p < 0.01) levels were significantly higher in smokers than non-smokers. The levels of other examined elements were similar in both groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the elementary composition of dental calculus may be affected by environmental factors such as tobacco smoke. Therefore, dental calculus may be utilized as a non-invasive diagnostic biological material for monitoring chronic oral heavy metal exposition. However, further studies are required to evaluate its diagnostic potential.