Liquefaction and performance of foundation systems in Iskenderun during 2023 Kahramanmaras-Turkiye earthquake sequence

ÖZENER P., Monkul M. M., Bayat E. E., ARİ A., ÇETİN K. Ö.

Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, vol.178, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 178
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2023.108433
  • Journal Name: Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Communication Abstracts, Compendex, Environment Index, INSPEC, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Deep foundations, Earthquake, Ground failure, Ground improvement, Jet grout, Liquefaction, Sand, Silty sand
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


On February 6, 2023, two devastating earthquakes occurred on the East Anatolian Fault, Turkiye. The earthquakes had severe impacts on civil engineering structures in Iskenderun, Hatay. Reconnaissance studies were performed in Iskenderun to document and evaluate the performances of the different foundation systems and improved ground. Several soil liquefaction cases, including a boulevard, a mosque complex, fishing shelter, and military quarters were observed and documented along with the ground conditions and surface ejecta characteristics. The site observations during the reconnaissance study showed that the application of the unreinforced concrete piles was not a proper foundation solution against seismic loading and did not perform well. Whereas foundation systems including reinforced barrette piles and improved sites with jet grout columns were observed to perform quite well with negligible/no deformations. Observations at several structures indicate that conventional pile foundations also performed well, however structures built on deep foundation systems together with prior jet grout improved sites performed notably better.