3D printable vegan plant-based meat analogue: Fortification with three different mushrooms, investigation of printability, and characterization

Demircan E., Aydar E. F., Mertdinc (Mertdinç) Z., Kasapoglu (Kasapoğlu) K. N., Ozcelik (Özçelik) B.

Food Research International, vol.173, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 173
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.foodres.2023.113259
  • Journal Name: Food Research International
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Compendex, EMBASE, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database, DIALNET
  • Keywords: 3D food printing, Advanced food processing technology, Ganoderma, Lactarius, Pleurotus, Vegan food alternative
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


In this study, a meat analogue formulation prepared using different protein sources as a printable ink for 3D printers and fortified with three different mushroom cultivars (reishi, Ganoderma lucidum (GL); saffron milk-cap, Lactarius deliciosus (LD); and oyster, Pleurotus ostreatus (PO)). 3D printing performance of the prepared inks was evaluated by factorial design in terms of nozzle height, printing speed, and flow compensation. New methods of maximum layer height and reprintability of plant-based meat analogues were conducted for the first time. Inks were characterized by analyzing rheological properties, microstructure, color characteristics, texture profile, cooking loss, amino acid content, and sensory evaluation. Results showed that the nozzle height and printing speed were found to be most effective on accuracy of prints and smoothness of layers. All inks (C, GL, LD and PO) represented shear-thinning and gel-like viscoelastic behavior (G′ > G″) with predominant elasticity (tan δ < 1). Therefore they were suited for 3D printing and possessed supporting the following layers for additive manufacturing as well as meeting the criteria for a stable structure. Meat analogue was printed successfully without perceived defects in all formulations, except the GL was looking linty. LD and PO inks brought the advantage of recycling as a result of their re-printability whereas GL could not. Moreover, mushroom fortification reduced hardness, stiffness, springiness, and chewiness properties of the meat analogues whereas it increased the juiciness with reasonable overall acceptance. Mushroom fortification also enhanced the nutritional value and improved release of umami amino acids. The findings of the study demonstrated that mushrooms could be a functional and nutritious candidate for 3D printable plant-based meat analogues.